In my talk I will first briefly review the contribution that cosmological hydrodynamic simulations provided to the recent advances in the field of cluster cosmology, mostly through X-ray observations. I will highlight how the improved description with simulations of a number of astrophysical processes provides highly useful information on mass proxies and on observational biases on their measurements. In this context, I will present recent results on the analysis of an extended set of such simulations aimed at quantifying the dependence of mass-proxy scaling relations on the details of the astrophysical processes introduced in simulations. Finally, I will highlight how the lessons learned on the calibration of mass proxies should guide us in planning the future generation of cluster surveys.
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